Extremophiles are the organisms that thrive under extreme environments such as high or low temperature, high or low pH, high salinity, very low water activity, and high pressure. Extremophiles include representatives of all three domains (Bacteria, Archaea, and Eucarya) however, the majority of these are from Archaea group of microorganisms. The enzymes known as “extremozymes” are produced by these microorganisms and hence function under extreme conditions. These microorganisms have developed many molecular adaptations to survive under challenging environments. There exist various classes of extremophiles that range all around the globe where each class corresponds to the way its surrounding niche differs. Depending upon the environmental conditions they may be classified as thermophiles, acidophiles, alkalophilies, halophiles, piezophiles to name few of them, however, these classifications are not exclusive and one may fall under multiple categories. This article focuses on the natural occurrences of extremophiles followed by their diverse ranges of adaptation strategies they adopt to survive the extreme environmental conditions.
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