Article : CFD Studies In Catalytic Converter

Title

CFD Studies In Catalytic Converter

Author

P.K.V.S.Subramanyeswararao, D.Lokanadham, Dr. N.Hari Babu

Catalytic converter is the main pollution control device for modern vehicles in order to reach the ever-increasing legislative demands for low emission standards. The design of catalytic converter requires a thorough understanding of fluid flow inside the catalytic converter. Effect of Geometric parameters on the performance of Automotive Catalytic Converters is investigated. In this project, an attempt has been made to study the effect of fluid flow due to geometry changes using commercial CFD tool.  By modeling the exhaust gas run rate, drop in pressure and the uniformity of flow through the substrate can be determined Uniform flow---A uniform flow distribution at the inlet monolith face is favourable for the conversion efficiency as well as the durability of the catalytic converter. Therefore, the main problem is to optimize the flow distribution at the catalytic converter. The analysis involved in determining uniform flow across the converter system in different models i.e., different inlet diffuser angles and special geometry created. The numerical results were used to determine the optimum geometry required to have a uniform velocity profile at the   inlet to the substrate. Therefore, an increased conversion efficiency of the catalyst will be obtained. Back pressure---Catalytic converter plays an important role in reducing harmful gases without changing the design of an engine, but the presence of catalytic converter increases the exhaust back pressure which results in the volumetric efficiency decrease and higher fuel consumption.  The analysis involved in determining back pressure across the converter system in four different modules i.e., different inlet diffuser angles, different lengths of substrates, different diameters of substrates and using the supply of external air. The numerical results were used to determine the optimum geometry required to have lower pressure drop in the catalytic converter. Converter with external air minimizes back pressure compared to without external air. The reduction of exhaust gas back pressure of the exhaust system offers a possibility to reduce the CO2 emissions as well as having improved power and torque characteristics of the engine.

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